Flowers are the most widely used forms of Cannabis. They are dried and cured female flowers that contain both cannabinoids and terpenes. You can smoke or vape raw Cannabis flower.
Concentrates are made by extracting cannabinoids from the Cannabis plant and mixing them with a solvent to form an ultra-concentrated product. For comparison, raw flowers contain about 20% THC while concentrates can reach levels over 80% THC. Concentrates contain both acidic and decarboxylated cannabinoids and some terpenes. You can consume concentrates in the form of oil or wax.
Edibles are a very popular way to consume cannabis, because they are food and beverages infused with active cannabinoids. These come in baked goods, soda, candy, capsules, tablets, and more. Manufacturers extract cannabinoids from the Cannabis plant and create an infused butter or oil byproduct which is then used to make the edible product.
Tinctures are cannabinoids infused with alcohol, oil, or glycerin. You can purchase them in oil form or strips and ingest them by placing them on or under the tongue.
Cannabinoids can also be used topically, applied directly to the skin. Available in creams and oils, topical forms of Cannabis generally do not have a psychoactive effect.
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds which activate the cannabinoid receptors found throughout our bodies. There are two types of cannabinoids–endo-cannabinoids, which our bodies produce, and phytocannabinoids, which are naturally occurring in Cannabis and other plants. Cannabinoids are found in highest concentrations within the resin glands of female Cannabis flowers. There are at least 85 different cannabinoids that have been identified and isolated from various cannabis strains. Each has a unique influence on the body’s endocannabinoid system.
Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (commonly referred to as “Δ9-THC,” “D9-THC,” “d9-THC” or simply “THC”) is a neutral cannabinoid, well known for being strongly psychoactive. It produces a variety of effects, including mild reverie, euphoria, increased sensory awareness, and some therapeutic benefits. THC is an effective treatment for a variety of ailments and disorders.
Cannabidiol is “non-psychoactive”, meaning that you will not feel “high” or experience the euphoria and other side effects of THC. It has many medical benefits, including regulating sleep and appetite while reducing inflammation. Studies have shown its effectiveness in treating seizure disorders such as MS and Epilepsy. It is also known for its anti-anxiety benefits and to lower blood sugar for Diabetics.
Because CBD does not produce psychoactive effects, it can be used by children, the elderly, and patients who do not enjoy the “high” associated with THC.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBD-A) is a cannabinoid found in both marijuana and hemp. With heat and time, it converts to CBD. CBD-A has been shown to be both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor.
Like CBD, Cannabichromene is non-psychoactive and has been shown to be 10 times more effective than CBD in treating anxiety and stress. It is also useful for treating inflammation, pain relief and is both anti-viral and anti-tumor. Studies show that CBC also stimulates the growth of bone tissue.
Cannabichromic acid (CBC-A) is a cannabinoid that transforms into CBC when heat is applied.
CBC-A is anti-inflammatory, weakly anti-fungal and strongly anti-bacterial.
Cannabigerolic acid is considered the ‘mother’ of all cannabinoids, because from it, the plant transforms it into all the other cannabinoids the plant makes. Besides its natural medicinal properties as a cannabinoid acid, it is the direct parent compound of CBG, a rare neuro-regenerative medicinal compound.
Cannabigerol is another non-psychoactive cannabinoid. Studies show that CBG stimulates the growth of new brain cells, including in the elderly. CBG also stimulates bone growth, is antibacterial and anti-tumor, and combats insomnia.
Cannabinolic acid is the parent compound that decarboxylates into CBN. CBN does not naturally occur in high quantities in the Cannabis plant. However, it can be created by oxidizing THC. CBN-A is anti-inflammatory, and likely anti-biological.
Like CBN-A, Cannabinol is derived from oxidizing THC. Cannabis with high levels of CBN-A is generally either old or has been exposed to significant heat. It is slightly psychoactive but is highly sedative, so it is often recommended for Insomnia patients. CBN is also somewhat effective as an anti-emetic and anticonvulsant.
Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆-8-THC) is useful for its anti-nausea, anti-anxiety, appetite stimulating, and neuroprotective properties.
CBL-A is the most stable of the cannabinoid acids to heat, and is highly resistant to decarboxylation. As a result it yields very little CBL on heating. Cannabicyclol acid is both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor.
Terpenes are the fragrance molecules found emanating from all plants – including cannabis, which offers a unique scent from one strain to the next. Each plant’s fragrance results from unique combinations of terpenes. Terpenes are believed to exhibit medicinal properties independent from the cannabinoids. Overall, terpenes contribute to a strain’s particular influence – a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.
Linalool is simple terpene alcohol, probably best known for the pleasant floral odor it gives to lavender plants. Linalool is also known as β-linalool, licareol and linalyl alcohol. Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid, and now it is used to treat psychosis and anxiety. It can also help prevent epileptic seizures and relieve pain.
Terpinolene is part of the monoterpene subfamily of terpenes. This family of four isomers is known for being anti-oxidant, immune-modulating, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal. Like Linalool, it has been used to treat insomnia.
When the Chlorophyll molecule degrades, it breaks down into two parts. One of these parts is Phytol, which has antioxidant properties.
β-Myrcene is a monoterpene, and for a wide variety of reasons, one of the most important terpenes. β-Myrcene is known to be anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and used in the treatment of spasms. It can also treat insomnia and pain.
Citronellol is a monoterpenoid, closely related to Geraniol that has been used as a natural mosquito repellent for over 2,000 years and to preserve fabric from moths. Like many other terpenoids, it is anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-regulating. Like many other terpenoids, it has a very low toxicity.
Caryophyllene oxide is the result of oxidizing beta-Caryophyllene. It is well known for its anti-biological activity against fungus and tumors. It has powerful antioxidant properties and may play a role in improving uptake of CBD/CBC in the CB2 receptor.
α-Pinene is one of the principle monoterpenes which reacts with other chemicals to form a variety of other terpenes (like D-Limonene) and other compounds. α-Pinene has been used for centuries to relax the airways of asthmatics. It is also anti-inflammatory.
D-limonene is a cyclic terpene with a strong citrus odor and bitter taste. Medicinally, Limonene is best known for treating gastric reflux and as an antifungal agent. It is useful for treating anxiety and depression, while increasing the absorption of other terpenoids and chemicals through the skin, mucous membranes and digestive tract. It i’s also been shown to be effective anti-tumor while at the same time being an immuno-stimulant.
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene with a rich spicy odor. Research has shown that β–Caryophyllene has affinity for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. β–Caryophyllene is known to be anti-septic, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory.
Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as α-humulene and α–caryophyllene. It is anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation, and is well known to Chinese medicine.
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