Cannabis

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Means of Ingestion

Raw Flower

Flowers are dried and cured female flowers cultivated from the cannabis plant. They contain cannabinoids in their acid forms, as well as a variety of terpenes. Raw Flower can be ingested by being smoked or vaped with help from the various accessory products sold at Fine Fettle.

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Concentrates

Concentrates use solvents like Supercritical CO2 or Nitrogen to extract the cannabinoids from the cannabis plant into a substance with substantially higher concentrations. While most raw flowers test below 20% THC, some concentrates contain over 80% THC. Concentrates contain cannabinoids in their acid and decarboxylated forms and some terpenes. Concentrates can come in the form of oil, shatter, wax, dabs, or others. These products can be consumed.

Edibles

Edibles are food products infused with active cannabinoids, for example: they are available as baked goods, beverages, candy, capsules, tablets, and countless other items. Manufacturers usually make a cannabinoid extract using butter or a variety of oils, which they then use as an enhanced ingredient in their recipes. Please note that not all of the above products are available in the state of Connecticut. These products are ingested through the mouth.

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Tinctures

Tinctures are infusions of alcohol, oil, or glycerin. They contain various levels of cannabinoid acids and their decarboxylated counterparts. Tinctures can come directly in oil form or strips and are placed under or on the tongue for ingestion.

Topical Forms

Topicals are medication applied directly to the skin. These formulations absorb into the skin and are highly unlikely to see an psychoactive response. Patients find that topical products can help with inflammation on the skin, nerve or joint pain, or any swelling. Topicals are mainly found in creams and oils.

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Cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are chemical compounds which activate the cannabinoid receptors found throughout our bodies. Phytocannabinoids are the natural forms of these chemicals found in highest concentrations within female cannabis flowers – more specifically, within the resin glands on the surface of the flower. There are at least 85 different cannabinoids identified and isolated from various cannabis strains. Each has a unique influence on the body’s endocannabinoid system.

Reference: Steep Hill Labs, Inc. – Cannabinoids

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (commonly referred to as “Δ9-THC,” “D9-THC,” “d9-THC” or simply “THC”) is a neutral cannabinoid, well known for being strongly psychoactive. Of all the scientific discoveries that have been made about THC, probably the single most important was how THC enabled scientists to discover the existence of the endocannabinoid system in vertebrate animals (including humans): a critical part of physiology that, up until then, was unknown. THC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of ailments and disorders including pain, tumors, nausea and ADHD. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol is “non-psychoactive” (in that it does not produce the euphoria, time dilation, or anxiety normally produced by THC) and has been shown to be extremely valuable in the treatment of seizure disorders such as MS and Epilepsy. Its lack of psychoactivity makes it ideal in treating children, the elderly and patients that prefer to remain clear headed and focused. CBD is often as effective as THC in the management of pain and tumors. CBD also lowers blood sugar, and has been used in the treatment of Diabetes. CBD has a calming effect, and is useful in the treatment of stress related disorders and sleep loss. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THC-A)

Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid, like other acid cannabinoids, is not psychoactive. THC-A is strongly anti-inflammatory, encourages appetite, is anti-tumor, combats insomnia, and is antispasmodic. THC-A is the most abundant terpenoid (and Cannabinoid) in the vast majority of Cannabis grown in the U.S., reaching levels over 30% of dry weight for flowers from female, un-pollinated plants (sensimilla). Many “high THC” strains, when grown and harvested optimally, produce about 15% THC-A by dry weight, though this can vary widely. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabidiolic Acid (CBD-A)

Until recently, Cannabidiolic Acid was much more commonly found in higher concentrations in Ruderalis than in Cannabis. In the last few years, strains of Cannabis have been hybridized that produce more CBDA than THCA, including “Cannatonic-C6” and “ACDC.” CBDA has been shown to be both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabichromic Acid (CBC-A)

Cannabichromic acid is one of the three compounds synthesized by the plant, out of CBG-A. CBC-A is anti-inflammatory, weakly anti-fungal and strongly anti-bacterial. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabigerolic Acid (CBG-A)

Cannabigerolic acid is consider the ‘mother’ of all cannabinoids, because from it, the plant transforms it into all the other cannabinoids the plant makes. Besides it’s natural medicinal properties as a cannabinoid acid, it is the direct parent compound of CBG, a rare neuro-regenerative medicinal compound. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabichromene (CBC)

Cannabichromene is also non psychoactive, and has been shown to be about ten times more effective than CBD in treating anxiety and stress. It also displays efficiency in treating inflammation, pain relief and is both anti-viral and anti-tumor. CBC has been shown to stimulate the growth of bone tissue. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabigerol (CBG)

Cannabigerol is non psychoactive, and has been shown to stimulate the growth of new brain cells, including in the elderly; it should be noted that genuinely neurogenic compounds are extremely rare. CBG also stimulates bone growth, is antibacterial and anti-tumor, and combats insomnia. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabinolic Acid (CBN-A)

Cannabinolic acid is the parent compound that decarboxylates into CBN. Curiously, in the plant, very little CBN is derived from CBN-A, and we do not see very much CBN-A in the plant; most CBN being derived from the oxidation of THC.
CBN-A is anti-inflammatory, and likely anti-biological. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabinol (CBN)

Cannabinol is an oxidation product of THC. It normally forms when THC is exposed to oxygen and heat. A high level of CBN often reflects cannabis that is old or has been exposed to significant heat. CBN is known to be very slightly psychoactive and more strongly sedative than other known Cannabinoids. As such, samples with significant CBN (approaching 1% by weight) can be useful to treat insomnia. CBN is also somewhat effective as an anti-emetic and anticonvulsant. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

∆-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆-8-THC)

“Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol is an analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with antiemetic, anxiolytic, appetite-stimulating, analgesic, and neuroprotective properties. Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC) binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, which inhibits adenyl cyclase, increases mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, modulates several potassium channel conductances and inhibits N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. This agent exhibits a lower psychotropic potency than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC).”

– NiH.gov

For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabicyclol Acid (CBL-A)

Very little is known about CBL-A, as the plant produces very little of it. Curiously, it is the most stable of the cannabinoid acids to heat, resistant to decarboxylation. As a result it yields very little CBL on heating. Cannabicyclol acid is both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Cannabicyclol (CBL)

Cannabicyclol is a degradative product – with exposure to light, cannabichromene converts to CBL. It’s medical properties are not known as it appears in such minuscule concentrations in comparison to other cannabinoids. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Terpenes

Terpenes are the fragrance molecules found emanating from all plants – including cannabis, which offers a unique scent from one strain to the next. The fragrant imprint of each plant is a result of different combinations of terpenes. Cannabis is unique in that each strain has a unique profile of terpenes. Terpenes are believed to exhibit medicinal properties independent from the cannabinoids. Overall, terpenes contribute to a strain’s particular influence – a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.

Reference: Steep Hill Labs, Inc. – Terpenes

Linalool

Linalool is simple terpene alcohol, probably best known for the pleasant floral odor it gives to lavender plants. It is also known as β-linalool, licareol and linalyl alcohol. Linalool has been isolated in several hundred different plants including lavenders, citrus, laurels, birch, coriander and rosewood.Linalool has been used for several thousands of years as a sleep aid. Linalool is a critical precursor in the formation of Vitamin E. It has been used in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety, and as an anti-epileptic agent. It also grants relief from pain and has been used as an analgesic. Its vapors have been shown to be an effective insecticide against fruit flies, fleas and cockroaches. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Terpinolene

Terpinolene is a monoterpene, part of the terpinene subfamily of terpenes. This family of four isomers is known for being anti-oxidant, immune-modulating and anti-biologically (anti-tumor, antibacterial, antifungal). It has also been used, for hundreds of years, in the treatment on insomnia. Terpinolene is found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind and conifers. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Phytol

When the Chlorophyll molecule degrades, it breaks down into two parts. The ‘tail’ portion is Phytol, an oily diterpene. It is used in the synthesis of vitamins E and K and is known to have anti-oxidant properties. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

β-Myrcene

β-Myrcene is a monoterpene, and for a wide variety of reasons, one of the most important terpenes. It is a precursor in the formation of other terpenes, as well. β-Myrcene is found fresh mango fruit, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus, lemongrass and many other plants. β-Myrcene is known to be anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and used in the treatment of spasms. It is also used to treat insomnia, and pain. It also has some very special properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly. In the case of cannabinoids, like THC, it allows it to take effect more quickly. More uniquely still, β-Myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect. For most people, the consumption of a fresh mango, 45 minutes before inhaling cannabis, will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity. β-Myrcene can be used in this same manner to improve uptake with a wide variety of chemical compounds.  For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Citronellol

Citronellol is a monoterpenoid, closely related to Geraniol, and is found in geraniums, rose, some citrus rind. It has been used as a natural mosquito repellent for over 2,000 years, and to preserve fabric from moths. Like many other terpenoids, it is anti-biological, anti-inflammatory, immuno-regulating. As an anti-biological, it is well known for being aggressively anti-tumor. Also like many other terpenoids, it has a very low toxicity, having a high level of GRAS status and a high LD50 of 2650mg/kG of body weight. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Caryphyllene Oxide

Caryophyllene oxide is the oxidation product of beta-Caryophyllene. It is well known for it’s anti-biological activity against fungus and tumors. It is also anti-oxidant. It may well play a roll in improving uptake of CBD/CBC in the CB2 receptor. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

α-Pinene

α-Pinene is one of the principle monoterpenes, and is important physiologically in both plants and animals, and to our environment. α-Pinene tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like D-Limonene) and other compounds. α-Pinene has been used for centuries as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma; ever notice how your lungs seem to open up when hiking through a pine forest in the warm summer? α-Pinene is also anti-inflammatory. It’s found in conifer trees, orange peels among others, and known for it’s sharp sweet odor. α-Pinene is a major constituent in turpentine. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Limonene

D-limonene is a cyclic terpene of major importance with a strong citrus odor and bitter taste. D-limonene was primarily used in medicine, food and perfume until a couple of decades ago, when it became better known as the main active ingredient in citrus cleaner. It has very low toxicity, and humans are rarely ever allergic to it. Medicinally, Limonene is best known for treating gastric reflux and as an anti-fungal agent. It’s ability to permeate proteins makes it ideal for treating toenail fungus. Limonene is also useful in treating depression and anxiety. Limonene also assists in the absorption of other terpenoids and chemicals through the skin, mucous membranes and digestive tract. It’s also been shown to be effective anti-tumor while at the same time being an immuno-stimulant. Limonene is one of two major compounds formed from α-Pinene. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

β–Caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants including Thai basils, cloves and black pepper, and has a rich spicy odor. Research has shown that β–Caryophyllene has affinity for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. β–Caryophyllene is known to be anti-septic, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.

Humulene

Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as α-humulene and α–caryophyllene; an isomer of β–caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among others. Humulene gives beer its ‘hoppy’ aroma. It is anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation, and is well known to Chinese medicine. For more information: visit Steep Hill Labs, Inc.